The post-exilic of Persian period showed a transition in the religion in ancient Israel from Yahwism(s) to Judaism(s). The events of exile and return made it impossible to completely fall back on the traditional religious identity. The essays in this volume try to reconstruct the path taken in that transition. The characters of Ezra and Nehemiah are generally seen as playing a formative role in this process. By reading texts from the biblical books supposedly written by Ezra and Nehemiah in a religio-historical context, new light falls on the process of change.